Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey
Enter your Wider Countryside Butterfly Count
The Small Copper – one of a number
of wider countryside species
The Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) was established in 2009 to improve data on the population status of butterflies across the countryside as a whole. This is important given that most site-based monitoring is biased towards good quality semi-natural habitat relatively rich in butterflies. Wider countryside monitoring is organised in partnership with the
British Trust for Ornithology (BTO).
Strong emphasis has been placed on making sure that the WCBS is both scientifically sound (by sampling of the countryside through random sampling) and efficient (a scheme with fewer visits but still with sufficient power to detect change in butterfly populations across the countryside). The WCBS method is based on the BTO’s Breeding Bird Survey (the ‘BBS’), counting along two parallel 1-km long transects subdivided into 10 sections, located within randomly selected 1-km squares. The differences are that butterflies are counted in a more restricted area than for birds and at different times of the day. Only 2-4 visits are required compared to 26 visits on the traditional UKBMS ‘Pollard walk’ transects.
New monitoring is required, to more
accurately assess the changing
abundance of butterflies in lowland
pasture and other widespread
Butterfly Conservation recorders
If you have been assigned a Butterfly Conservation WCBS square (not a BTO BBS square) and wish to continue with the survey, then please download forms and instructions from the bottom of the page or contact the WCBS co-ordinator via email email@example.com or phone 01929 406006 to receive information in the post or to receive a copy of your route map.
If you wish to start the survey on a new square this year then please get in touch with the WCBS co-ordinator to be allocated a random square close to your home.
BTO Breeding Bird Survey recorders
If you are a BTO BBS surveyor who has already taken part in the WCBS on your BBS square then you will receive details from the BTO in May on how to continue taking part.
If you are a BTO BBS recorder and wish to start the WCBS survey this year then please contact firstname.lastname@example.org to register and take part.
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Results from the roll out in 2009
Location of the WCBS squares-
360 BTO BBS squares (blue) and
403 Butterfly Conservation squares (green)
Following four years of pilot studies, the WCBS was formally launched in 2009. The
WCBS is the first UK-wide survey of butterfly abundance based on random sampling.
In spite of limited resources for promotion, there was a fantastic response by volunteer
recorders. In total 1642 visits were made to 763 1-km squares (see map) by 611 recorders,
who collectively walked 3300 km of survey line, counting 119,000 butterflies of
The full feedback newsletter can be downloaded
The most widely recorded species over the core July and August period was the Large
White, occurring in nearly 90% of squares, whilst the most abundant species was
the Meadow Brown with approximately 15,000 individuals counted. Two Browns (Meadow
Brown, Gatekeeper) and three Whites (Large White, Small White, Green-veined White)
accounted for two thirds of all butterflies counted.
On average, recorders saw 11 species and 160 butterflies per square (based on two
visits). This represents a marked increase in numbers from the pilot study years,
when around 100 butterflies were seen in the same period. This increase could be
due to a good year for migrant species such as the Painted Lady which was present
in 83% of squares and ranked 4th in total abundance compared to 2008 when it ranked
26th and also Large White which jumped three places to 1st position in 2009. Encouragingly
the Small Copper, a species of intermediate range and abundance, was seen in over
a quarter of squares and moved five places up the table to become the 14th most
commonly seen species.
Looking back to 2008, butterfly numbers are up by nearly a third and 1-2 more species
were seen per visit. With three years of data from 2007-2009 we will be able to
look at changes in butterfly abundance in the wider countryside and the possible
reasons for change.
The Insect Flower Search Pilot study was very successful with around a third of
recorders taking part. The Common Carder Bumblebee was the most widespread species
and the Marmalade Hoverfly was the most abundant. The pilot study will not be continuing
in 2010 but it shows that recorders are keen to look for other insects in the countryside.
Results from the 2010 survey
Results from the 2011 survey
Location of the WCBS squares-
276 BTO BBS squares (blue)
362 Butterfly Conservation squares (green)
85 Contract (yellow)
The Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) is the main scheme for monitoring
population changes of the UK's common and widespread butterflies. The survey is a
partnership project run jointly by Butterfly Conservation, the British Trust for
Ornithology (BTO) and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH). We now have five
years of data (including the pilot years of 2007 and 2008) from the Wider Countryside
Butterfly Survey (WCBS). In 2011, 723 squares were surveyed by 523 recorders who
counted in excess of 67,000 butterflies of 45 species. This is a fantastic recording
effort and we wish to thank everyone who took part.
The newsletter of the 2011 results can be downloaded
On average recorders saw 47 butterflies of seven species per survey made over July
and August compared to 60 butterflies of 7 species per survey in 2010. These data
support anecdotal observations that 2011 was a relatively poor year for common and
widespread butterflies. Almost two-thirds of the butterflies seen comprised of
Meadow Brown, Small White, Green-veined White, Large White and Gatekeeper. The most
widespread (and abundant) species was the Meadow Brown occurring in over 80% of
Due to a grant from Scottish Natural Heritage coverage was boosted in Scotland, giving
more representative coverage for a number of northerly distributed species including
Scotch Argus. The Essex Skipper had a good year as did the Red Admiral. However, it
wasn't all good news; both the Small Tortoiseshell and Common Blue had poor years.
Participants once again recorded day-flying moths in 146 squares, Silver-Y was the most
widespread species and Six-spot Burnet was the most abundant. Dragonflies and
damselflies were recorded in 222 squares Common Darter was the most widespread and
abundant species for the third year running.
Results from the 2012 survey
Location of the WCBS squares-
334 BTO BBS squares (blue)
437 Butterfly Conservation squares (pink)
The Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) is the main scheme for monitoring population changes of the UK's common and widespread butterflies. The survey is a partnership project run jointly by Butterfly Conservation, the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH). We now have six years of data (including the pilot years of 2007 and 2008) from the Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS). In 2012, 771 squares were surveyed by 648 recorders who counted in excess of 64,000 butterflies of 46 species. This is a fantastic recording effort and we wish to thank everyone who took part.
The newsletter of the 2012 results can be downloaded
It was a good year for some of the grass-feeding Satyrid (Brown) species. For the fourth consecutive year Meadow Brown was the most abundant butterfly with 18,629 individuals counted. It was also the most wide spread species occurring in almost 90% of squares. Meadow Brown, Gatekeeper, Small White, Ringlet and Green-veined white accounted for over two-thirds of butterflies observed.
For the majority of species it was a poor year – the worst in a four year series. There has been a year-on-year decline in mean butterfly abundance in each year of the WCBS. On average, recorders saw 44 butterflies of four species per survey made over July and August compared to 80 butterflies of 8 species per survey in 2009.
Participants once again recorded day-flying moths in 222 squares, Silver-Y was the most widespread and abundant species. Dragonflies and damselflies were recorded in 259 squares; Common Blue Damselfly was the most abundant species and Common Hawker the most widespread species.
Results from the 2013 survey
Location of the WCBS squares-
374 BTO BBS squares (blue)
483 Butterfly Conservation squares (pink)
The WCBS is the most comprehensive UK-wide survey of insect abundance to use a robust random sampling framework and is important in assessing the changing status of butterfly species in the wider countryside and in providing an indicator of the health of nature. The scheme is run as a partnership between Butterfly Conservation (BC), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), co-funded by a multi-agency consortium led by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC).
We now have seven years of data (including the pilot years of 2007 and 2008) from the Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS). In 2013, 857 squares were surveyed by more than 700 recorders who counted in excess of 140,000 butterflies of 45 species. This is a fantastic recording effort and we wish to thank everyone who took part.
The newsletter of the 2013 results can be downloaded
A simple analysis of yearly totals indicated that the vast majority of butterflies fared better than in 2012. Last year recorders saw an average of 85 butterflies of five species per survey made over July and August – almost double the numbers recorded in 2012.
The Small Tortoiseshell, which has suffered an ongoing decline, recorded its best summer since the start of WCBS. More than 6,833 individuals were counted with the butterfly seen in 80% of squares compared to just 40% in 2012. Following an appalling 2012, the Common Blue also enjoyed a good year with an average five-fold increase in abundance per-square. The Small Copper and Brimstone also thrived – and were both more widespread and abundant than in the previous year. The Large White and Small White, commonly known as the ‘cabbage whites’ were also recorded in profusion with more than twice the number of Large Whites counted per square and five times the number of Small Whites in 2013 than in 2012. For the fifth year in succession the Meadow Brown was the most widespread and abundant species. The butterfly was recorded in more than 90% of squares with 8,000 more butterflies counted in 2013 than 2012. The Holly Blue and Red Admiral were among the minority of species that didn’t have such a good year with numbers down for both compared to 2012. Participants once again recorded day-flying moths in 304 squares, Silver-Y was the most widespread and abundant species. Dragonflies and damselflies were recorded in 323 squares; Common Blue Damselfly was the most abundant species and Common Darter the most widespread species.
Results from the 2014 survey
Results from the 2015 survey
To take part in the WCBS please contact the WCBS co-ordinator:
Dr Zoë Randle
Tel: 01929 406006
To take part on an existing BTO BBS square please contact the BBS National Organiser:
Tel: 01842 750050
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